America's withdrawal from Afghanistan is a historic period for international politics. Unilateral military action by the US to protect 'world peace' and 'human rights' in a long-standing polar system had more or less sustained the world order. The return of the Taliban to power has challenged this stability of the world order.
In terms of global conditions, Central Asia has been the historical region that generally determined who would control the world. An area for which the US fought directly and indirectly with the former Soviet Union. If seen, 'superpower' in international politics is mainly defined on the basis of two points. First, a superpower is one that has 'global' influence and its dominion in every corner of the world. Other countries of the world should also recognize this superpower. Second, who has the ability to solve the problems of every region of the world. After World War II, America maintained its hegemony in every region of the world. There was no area where the US military was not present.
The Soviet Union did more or less the same thing. Russia could not prevent the rise of unipolar politics after the collapse of the Soviet Union, largely because of Russia's inability to match America's global presence. Today, the United States alone has about 800 foreign military bases of various types around the world, compared to about 30 bases jointly built by Russia, France and Britain by one estimate.
After the historic terrorist attack on New York's World Trade Center in 2001, the US built several military bases in Central Asia to support its operations in Afghanistan. The then president of Uzbekistan saw the new partnership with the US as an opportunity to legitimize his domestic campaign against Islamist terrorists. The US military presence in Kyrgyzstan helped to give its president international legitimacy.
However, the purpose of American support was also to provide foreign aid to the countries of Central Asia. The goal was to strengthen local anti-terror programs, drug efforts and border security. China and Russia also accepted America's military intervention in Central Asia. Russia saw the US partnership as an opportunity for itself to establish itself as an important global country and regional negotiator. As a result, within a few days, the US expelled the Taliban by expanding military in Central Asia. With the expansion of its regional presence, it forged a new range of security partnerships. For America it was a golden age in Central Asia.
The withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan is perhaps the first time a situation has arisen in which the US has no direct military presence throughout Central Asia. Why does America, as a superpower, want to reduce its presence and activity in a vast and important region like Central Asia? Central Asia has vast mineral and hydrocarbon resources. Afghanistan's geographical proximity to China and its important geo-strategic location for South, Central and West Asia make a direct presence there for any superpower. Despite this, America is adamant about abandoning Central Asia. Possible reasons for the withdrawal are cited as two trillion dollars in Afghan presence in two decades and the casualties of about 2,400 soldiers, but these reasons are nothing compared to the area the US is going through.
However, America has been losing its allies in Central Asia for a long time. Although Pakistan was America's biggest ally in this area, it gradually became an ally of America's competitor China. The US had direct or indirect access to most of the military bases in Pakistan. But the temporary stoppage of US forces during the withdrawal from Afghanistan gave rise to political controversy in Pakistan, so the government of Pakistan made a statement that the US military's presence in the country was temporary.
The US no longer has a military presence in the former Soviet republics, including Central Asia, and there is little chance that any of these countries will host US troops in the near future. The US military base in Uzbekistan closed in 2005 and the military base in Kyrgyzstan in 2014. Beijing's position has been strengthened by the Russia-China alliance and economic investments made by China through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization formed in 2001.
After all, what could be the reason that American policy makers left their military base in Afghanistan so hastily? Obviously, the US will try to control its military operations from Qatar in Central Asia. Despite technological advances and increased accuracy of remote military operations, US forces could not defeat the Taliban in Afghanistan, so it would be foolish to even think that they would be able to do so from far away Qatar.